The Liturgy of Humanistic Judaism

Liturgy and Humanism are not words that people instinctively relate to one another. Yet if shabbat and holiday celebrations are to be meaningful in Humanistic Judaism, a dynamic and engaging liturgy must be utilized. I believe that a denominational Humanist siddur should be developed which offers a structure for shabbat and holidays while allowing innovation and choice for each congregation. A layout similar to the Reform siddur may be useful in allowing multiple options for each two page spread as the congregation goes through the service. It is my belief that the Humanist siddur should be more or less structured around the themes of the traditional prayer service while providing Humanist meditations in place of the prayers. A limited example will be placed at the end of this post, which is open for public use and reproduction.

The question will obviously arise as to why Humanistic Jews require a siddur at all. The answer is simple: for the same reason theistic Jews require a siddur. Siddur means order. By setting an order for communal gatherings and individual meditation, we can be sure that we are reminding ourselves of our most important values and reflecting on those aspects of life which are the most meaningful. By using the themes and structure of the traditional siddur we are maintaining our commitment to Judaism, Jewish values, and Jewish culture while changing the words themselves to reflect our own beliefs. A siddur for Humanistic Judaism should include opening blessings and songs followed by an interpretation of the Shema and its blessings for creation, revelation, and salvation. Then a Humanist version of the Amidah should be included, being sure to follow the general flow of the traditional eighteen or seven blessings. After the Amidah, comes an optional Torah service (although other books may be used if desired) complete with songs, processional, a sharing of the community’s joys and sorrows (in place of the mi shebeirach), and a brief sermon or discussion. The Torah service should be followed by Humanist versions of the Aleinu and Mourners’ Kaddish. After the Mourners’ Kaddish can come announcements and a final song, followed by an oneg or kiddush (with blessings for wine and bread if desired).

There is also the issue of whether or not to use Hebrew. While Hebrew has been considered a holy language, and now the language of Israeli Jews, most diaspora Jews do not understand it. It therefore makes no sense to conduct the service in Hebrew, especially if a lack of Hebrew knowledge discourages people from coming to community celebrations of shabbat and holidays. Furthermore, by conducting the service in the vernacular the congregants can reflect on what they are reading and meditate on the words of the service throughout the day or week. With that being said, Hebrew is still important as a Jewish language and there should be some use of it in the service. This should probably be limited to the Shema meditations and the songs, although its use can be implemented as the community sees fit throughout the service. It should also be studied by laity and rabbis alike in order to more fully engage with traditional Jewish texts and modern Israeli culture.

Kippot, tallitot, and tefillin are the traditional garments worn by Jews during prayer. While each item is used for specific theological reasons in traditional Judaism, this need not be the case in Humanistic Judaism. They are products of Jewish culture, and if people find meaning in wearing them to shabbat and holiday services or during private meditation, they should be encouraged to do so. Kippot and tallitot especially function as symbols of Judaism, and it is my private opinion that they should be encouraged in the synagogue during ceremonies for shabbat and holidays. (As a vegan, I am personally opposed to the use of traditional tefillin and think that they go against the central message of Humanistic Judaism, but I also recognize that others might disagree with my opinion.)

By using traditional ritual prayer items like a tallit, kippah, and shabbat candles, and following the general structure of the Jewish prayer service, Humanistic Judaism can affirm its connection to the Jewish tradition. By providing multiple options and Humanist alternatives to traditional prayers, the Humanist siddur can offer dynamic and engaging community celebrations. Below you will find my version of a Humanist siddur for weekdays and shabbat. Italicized text indicates a congregational response or instructions for the flow of the service.

Weekday Morning and Evening Liturgy

Opening Blessings:

How lovely are your tents, O Jacob, your dwelling places, O Israel! We enter into this house reverently to pay honor to our highest values, making this place a temple for what is sacred.

We give thanks for the intricate network of veins, arteries, and vital organs which make our bodies function. May we always be grateful for our health and strength and call to mind the holiness of the body.

These are the obligations without measure, whose reward, too, is without measure;

To honor father and mother;

To perform acts of love and kindness;

To attend the house of study;

To welcome the stranger;

To visit the sick;

To rejoice with newlyweds;

To console the bereaved;

To make peace when there is strife.

For all that is our life, we give our thanks and praise; for all life is a gift to build the common good and make our own days glad.

The Shema and Its Blessings

The vast universe in all its splendor becomes self-reflective in us. We gaze upon the stars and learn the secrets of their birth and their role in the creation of the universe as we know it. Light and dark, gravity and heat, matter and energy create all that we see: the trees and the animals, mountains and seas. We stand in awe before the grandeur of creation.

The forces of nature have equipped us to know what is good and helpful. The process of natural selection has made us a cooperative species capable of living with one another to build our lives together. Through the guidance of conscience and knowledge from our memories of the past, we know what it is to live together in unity.

Shema Yisrael, kol ha-chayim hu echad

Hear O Israel, all life is One

We will honor life in all its forms with all our minds, all our strength, and all our being. We acknowledge our dependence on the web of life which supports our well-being. We will set these words upon our hearts; teach them faithfully to our children; speak of them at home and in our travels, when we lie down and rise up. We will bind them as a sign upon our hand and make them a symbol between our eyes. We will inscribe them on the doorposts of our houses and on our gates. We will be mindful of our place in the web of life and thus shall we consecrate ourselves to the task of living in harmony with all life.

May our devotion to the sanctity of life lead to our redemption from all that plagues our world. May our work for tikkun olam bear lasting fruit for us and our descendants.

The Amidah        All Rise

Let my mouth declare the beauty and worth of life.

HONORING OUR ANCESTORS

Our ancestors survived the harshness of life with dignity and perseverance. From Abraham and Sarah, Isaac and Rebecca, Jacob and Rachel and Leah to our parents and grandparents; we owe all that we are to their hard work and will to live. Let us acknowledge their faithfulness to the ways of life and all that they have done to bring us into life.

SALVATION, LIFE, AND DEATH

The forces of the universe have created all that we need for salvation. With love we can sustain the living. With compassion we can sustain life for all. We can help the falling and heal the sick; bring freedom to the captive, and keep faith with those who came before us. Let us bless the universe, source of life and death.

SANCTITY OF LIFE

We sanctify life when we acknowledge the interdependent unity of all life.

Holy, holy, holy is the totality of life! The whole earth is covered with its sanctity!

And we respond to the holiness of life with respect and honor for the earth’s ecosystem of which we are a part.

FOR WISDOM AND UNDERSTANDING

Let us always strive to grow in knowledge, understanding, and insight.

Blessed is the mind which grows in wisdom.

FOR REPENTANCE

May we always return to our ideals and draw near to the highest values of our lives. Let us come back to goodness in perfect repentance of our mistakes.

Blessed is the conscience which calls for repentance.

FOR FORGIVENESS

May we seek forgiveness from all those who we hurt and pardon those who hurt us. May we forgive others in the same spirit in which we seek forgiveness.

Blessed is the one whose forgiveness is abundant.

FOR MUTUAL AID

Let us be aware of the problems of others and help them in their need.

Blessed is the one who helps those who are in need.

FOR HEALTH

Let us remember all those who are injured and in poor health and do all that we can to alleviate their suffering.

Blessed is the one who alleviates the suffering of others.

FOR ABUNDANCE

May the products of our labors bring us well-being and well-being to all people. Let us give to those in need from the abundance of our own possessions and satisfy the demands of human goodness.

Blessed are those who give from their abundance.

FOR FREEDOM

Sound the great horn to proclaim freedom, let us be inspired to strive for the liberation of the oppressed, and let the song of liberty be heard throughout the earth.

Blessed is the one who redeems the oppressed and fights for the downtrodden.

FOR JUSTICE

May we elect just and upright leaders who govern fairly and with compassion.

Blessed are those who govern with justice and goodness.

FOR GOODNESS

Let us strive for the highest ethical standards that we may embody goodness in our lives for our own sake and the sake of our communities.

Blessed are those who dedicate themselves to goodness.

FOR ISRAEL

We hope for peace in the land of Israel and compassion and justice in the hearts of her inhabitants.

Blessed are those who make peace in Israel.

FOR WORSHIP

That which dominates our imaginations and our thoughts will determine our lives, and our character. Therefore, it behooves us to be careful what we worship, for what we are worshipping, we are becoming.

Blessed is the one who worships goodness, compassion, and justice.

THANKSGIVING

We gratefully acknowledge the blessings of our lives. The breath in our lungs, the food we consume, and the ones we love and who love us in return. For all that is our life, we give our thanks and praise.

PEACE

Peace, happiness, and blessing; grace and love and mercy: may these descend on us, on all Israel, and all the world. Let us love kindness and justice and mercy, and seek blessing, life, and peace.

Blessed is the one creates peace.

 

SILENT MEDITATION

I will keep my tongue from evil and my lips from deceit. I will be silent in the face of derision, humble in the presence of all. I will open my heart to the truth and hurry to perform an act of goodness and mercy.

May the words of my mouth, and the meditations of my heart lead to actions which further the repair of the world.

 Optional Torah Service on page X

Continue with the Aleinu and Kaddish on page X

 

Shabbat Liturgy (For Erev Shabbat or Shacharit)

Candle Lighting for Shabbat Eve

As these Shabbat candles give light to all who behold them, so may we, by our lives, give light to all who behold us.

As their brightness reminds us of the generations of Israel who have kindled light, so may we, in our own day, be among those who kindle light.

Let there be joy!

Let there be peace!

Let there be light!

Let there be Shabbat!

Opening Blessings:

How lovely are your tents, O Jacob, your dwelling places, O Israel! We enter into this house reverently to pay honor to our highest values, making this place a temple for what is sacred.

We give thanks for the intricate network of veins, arteries, and vital organs which make our bodies function. May we always be grateful for our health and strength and call to mind the holiness of the body.

These are the obligations without measure, whose reward, too, is without measure;

To honor father and mother;

To perform acts of love and kindness;

To attend the house of study;

To welcome the stranger;

To visit the sick;

To rejoice with newlyweds;

To console the bereaved;

To make peace when there is strife.

For all that is our life, we give our thanks and praise; for all life is a gift to build the common good and make our own days glad.

May we stay far from immorality and master temptation. May our darker passions not rule us, nor evil acquaintances lead us away from goodness. May we strengthen the voice of conscience and always strive to perform deeds of goodness that we may know the good will of all who know us.

At all times let us revere goodness inwardly and outwardly, acknowledge the truth, and speak it.

We are tiny on the scale of the universe. Let us learn to rely on one another.

 

Insert appropriate Songs, Poems, and Music for Meditation

 

The Shema and Its Blessings

The vast universe in all its splendor becomes self-reflective in us. We gaze upon the stars and learn the secrets of their birth and their role in the creation of the universe as we know it. Light and dark, gravity and heat, matter and energy create all that we see: the trees and the animals, mountains and seas. We stand in awe before the grandeur of creation.

The forces of nature have equipped us to know what is good and helpful. The process of natural selection has made us a cooperative species capable of living with one another to build our lives together. Through the guidance of conscience and knowledge from our memories of the past, we know what it is to live together in unity.

Shema Yisrael, kol ha-chayim hu echad

Hear O Israel, all life is One

We will honor life in all its forms with all our minds, all our strength, and all our being. We acknowledge our dependence on the web of life which supports our well-being. We will set these words upon our hearts; teach them faithfully to our children; speak of them at home and in our travels, when we lie down and rise up. We will bind them as a sign upon our hand and make them a symbol between our eyes. We will inscribe them on the doorposts of our houses and on our gates. We will be mindful of our place in the web of life and thus shall we consecrate ourselves to the task of living in harmony with all life.

May our devotion to the sanctity of life lead to our redemption from all that plagues our world. May our work for tikkun olam bear lasting fruit for us and our descendants.

 

The Amidah        All Rise

Let my mouth declare the beauty and worth of life.

HONORING OUR ANCESTORS

Our ancestors survived the harshness of life with dignity and perseverance. From Abraham and Sarah, Isaac and Rebecca, Jacob and Rachel and Leah to our parents and grandparents; we owe all that we are to their hard work and will to live. Let us acknowledge their faithfulness to the ways of life and all that they have done to bring us into life.

SALVATION, LIFE, AND DEATH

The forces of the universe have created all that we need for salvation. With love we can sustain the living. With compassion we can sustain life for all. We can help the falling and heal the sick; bring freedom to the captive, and keep faith with those who came before us. Let us bless the universe, source of life and death.

SANCTITY OF LIFE

We sanctify life when we acknowledge the interdependent unity of all life.

Holy, holy, holy is the totality of life! The whole earth is covered with its sanctity!

And we respond to the holiness of life with respect and honor for the earth’s ecosystem of which we are a part.

FOR SHABBAT

On the seventh day our people rest from their labors and reflect on the values and ideals most precious to them. To love mercy, to act justly, and to walk the path of life humbly with others. Let our rest on this day remind us of what is holy and precious in life.

Blessed is life, and blessed are those who revere life.

FOR WORSHIP

That which dominates our imaginations and our thoughts will determine our lives, and our character. Therefore, it behooves us to be careful what we worship, for what we are worshipping, we are becoming.

Blessed is the one who worships goodness, compassion, and justice.

THANKSGIVING

We gratefully acknowledge the blessings of our lives. The breath in our lungs, the food we consume, and the ones we love and who love us in return. For all that is our life, we give our thanks and praise.

PEACE

Peace, happiness, and blessing; grace and love and mercy: may these descend on us, on all Israel, and all the world. Let us love kindness and justice and mercy, and seek blessing, life, and peace.

Blessed is the one creates peace.

 

SILENT MEDITATION

I will keep my tongue from evil and my lips from deceit. I will be silent in the face of derision, humble in the presence of all. I will open my heart to the truth and hurry to perform acts of goodness and mercy.

May the words of my mouth, and the meditations of my heart lead to actions which further the repair of the world.

 

Insert a brief reading from the weekly Torah or Haftarah portion, or some other Jewish literature (Optional “Torah Service” begins on next page).

Continue with a Shabbat message or discussion based on the reading.

 

Continue with the Aleinu and Kaddish on page X.

 

Optional Torah Service

THE ARK IS OPENED AND TORAH OR BOOK TAKEN OUT

Let us bless those who came before us and passed on to us the records of their wisdom.

THE SHEMA

Hear, O Israel: Let us take up our portion in the repair of the world.

At one with our forebears, we affirm that righteousness, justice, and compassion shall be our lamp.

 

Insert appropriate song as the procession with the Torah or other book is done through the congregation.

 

BLESSING BEFORE READING

Let us bless the source of life!

Blessed is the source of life from which all goodness flows!

We give thanks for our ancestors who have blessed us with teachings of wisdom. Blessed are our ancestors, the creators of Torah.

BLESSING AFTER READING

Blessed are the seekers of wisdom and the teachers of the next generation.

After the reading, invite the congregation to share personal joys and sorrows.

 

The Aleinu

Let us praise the majesty of the universe, old beyond imagining, source of all things, which has created diversity and interdependent unity.

We stand in awe before the majestic, terrifying power of the creative and destructive forces of the universe, and recognize our smallness in relation to eternity and our dependence on one another.

Recognizing our limits in this world which sustains and destroys life, we affirm our hope for a society built on justice, equity, and compassion. May the idols of greed and selfishness fall to the overwhelming power of cooperation and righteousness.

May all who live acknowledge the rule of justice and swear loyalty to a life of goodness.

And may the establishment of the just and compassionate society come soon and in our day. On that day, goodness shall reign over all the earth; and humanity shall be one.

 

Humanist Kaddish

We remember our loved ones whom death has recently taken from us and those who died at this time in previous years. The martyrs of our people are always in our thoughts. May their memories be a blessing to all.

NITGADAL V’NITKADASH B’RUAKH HAADAM

Let us enhance and exalt ourselves in the spirit of humanity.

Let us acclaim the preciousness of life.

Let us show gratitude for life by approaching it with reverence.

Let us embrace the whole world, even as we wrestle with its parts.

Let us fulfill, each of us in our own way, our share in serving the world and seeking truth.

May our commitment to life help us strengthen healing of spirit and peace of mind.

May healing and peace permeate and comfort all of Israel and all those who dwell on earth.

NITGADAL V’NITKADASH B’RUAKH HAADAM

Let us enhance and exalt ourselves in the spirit of humanity.

And let us say: Ken y’hee. May it be so.

–Jon Dickman and Congregation Kol Shalom inspired by Rabbi Rami Shapiro

Community Announcements and Final Song

Kiddush and Ha-Motzi

With wine, our symbol of joy, we celebrate this Shabbat, a day of rest for the Jewish people.

Let us bless the earth, the source of life, which brings forth the fruit of the vine for our enjoyment.

 

With challah, the symbol of sustenance and the interconnectedness of all life, we give thanks for this Shabbat meal.

Let us bless the earth, the source of life, which brings forth the food that sustains us.

 

Havdalah

Kindle the candle

With wine, candles, and spices we mark the end of shabbat and the beginning of the new week. The wine reminds us of the joy of shabbat; the candle reminds us that life depends on the work of the coming week; and the spices remind us to look forward to next shabbat.

The cup of wine is raised.

Blessed are the earth, the sun, and the rain which create the fruit of the vine.

The wine is circulated.

We are thankful for the earth which produces all spices.

The spice box is circulated.

We are grateful for the light and warmth of fire which has blessed humanity.

As we mark the separation of shabbat from the rest of the week, we commit to separating ourselves from immorality, hatred, and injustice. May we be inspired to live lives of righteousness and compassion in the coming week. We give thanks for our minds and consciences which can separate what is right from what is wrong.

The candle is extinguished.

What Is the Message of Humanistic Judaism?

All religions have a central doctrine or underlying motive. The core of traditional Judaism is the belief that God established a covenant with the Jewish people first through Abraham, then through the revelation to Moses at Mt. Sinai, and it is the covenantal responsibility of the Jews to follow the teachings of the Torah. This core belief offers problems for progressive branches of Judaism which do not believe these covenants or events to be literal, historical, or binding. Most liberal denominations of Judaism have tried to side-step the issue by reinterpreting (or outright ignoring) the problematic parts of the Torah and the stories of its creation. The process of reinterpreting and approaching the Torah as metaphor puts the progressive branches of Judaism at a distinct disadvantage when competing with Orthodox Judaism (and other religious traditions like Christianity and Buddhism) for adherents. Reinterpreting requires extensive thought, dedication, and education in both academic and traditional analyses of the texts, while traditional belief is capable of being adhered to by anyone and has the weight of ancient authority. Progressive and Humanistic Judaism needs a simple, believable message to replace the traditional doctrine. This new message will operate as the heart of progressive, Humanistic Judaism in the same way the traditional doctrine does for traditional Jews. It must address the reason for practicing Humanistic Judaism and the core beliefs and requirements of Humanistic Judaism.

In determining why someone should practice Humanistic Judaism rather than traditional Judaism, another religion, or no religion at all, one must first establish the core teaching of Humanistic Judaism. The Society for Humanistic Judaism (SHJ) has a list of affirmations and beliefs on their website, however, these statements lack simplicity and the power to inspire. Sherwin Wine, the founder of the SHJ, argued that the central message of Jewish history “is the demand for human self-reliance. In an indifferent universe there is no help from destiny […] We stand alone, and yet together, to create the world we want” (Celebration: A Ceremonial and Philosophic Guide for Humanists and Humanistic Jews, p. 188). This sentiment is echoed, though less forcefully, in Edgar Bronfman’s book Why Be Jewish?  Drawing on his understanding of Jewish tradition, Bronfman argues that Judaism does not demand belief in the supernatural, but rather the drive to repair the world and ourselves. In Bronfman’s understanding, the central doctrine of progressive Judaism and the purpose of Judaism is to bring the divine to earth, to make the world a better place. Jewish practice and teaching attempts to accomplish this goal by emphasizing “ethics, morality, and human relationships” (p. 20).

Bronfman also established twelve principles for approaching Judaism in a way that did not demand onerous beliefs in a supernatural God, prophetic revelations, or excessive ritualism. He phrased these principles in order to emphasize action over belief. All of these principles are distilled from his own experience and study of Judaism and are rooted in Jewish texts and values. They are the best summary of the principles of Humanistic and progressive Judaism so far articulated that I am aware of, and they should be adopted by Humanistic and progressive Jews everywhere:

  1. Revere godliness: the true, the good, and the beautiful.
  2. Ask questions.
  3. Commit to repairing the outer and inner world.
  4. Perform acts of loving-kindness.
  5. Assist society’s weakest members.
  6. Champion social justice and environmental causes.
  7. Welcome the stranger.
  8. Engage with Jewish traditions, texts, philosophy, history, and art.
  9. Study and strive for excellence in the humanities and other secular fields.
  10. Promote family and community.
  11. Embrace key Jewish holidays and life-cycle events.
  12. Conduct business ethically. (p. 18)

While these are the best articulated principles of Humanistic Judaism that I know of, there is room for improvement. For instance, there should be a principle regarding respect for the dignity and worth of every person, and perhaps a statement on dedication to democratic processes in society and Jewish communities. But overall, this functions as an excellent distillation of the principles of progressive Judaism beyond belief.

Now that the potential central doctrine of Humanistic Judaism has been established, it is possible to address the issue of why someone should practice Humanistic Judaism. The most obvious reason is that Humanistic Judaism is aligned with the beliefs and attitudes of many secular and liberal Jews, and it therefore offers a way for Jews to remain connected to their heritage and their people without sacrificing their intellectual dignity. A less obvious reason is that this understanding of Humanistic Judaism, which emphasizes ethics and the imperative to make the world better, has the potential to actually make the world better if more people were involved in practicing its teaching and living by its principles. Furthermore, engaging more liberal Jews in Jewish living and learning can help to preserve and grow non-Orthodox Jewish communities around a shared set of values which can make a positive impact in the diaspora and in Israel. In short, Humanistic Judaism has the capacity to make the world better and to make Jewish identity meaningful and purpose driven in a non-dogmatic, liberal context.

In summary, the core teaching of Humanistic Judaism is (or should be) that Jewish history and suffering demonstrates that the world is an unjust place full of suffering and brutality, and relying solely on God or supernatural intervention to fix human problems is unwise and counterproductive. Humanistic Judaism therefore stresses human and Jewish self-reliance, ethical living, and the need to repair the world through concrete actions. Humanistic Jews therefore join together in community to celebrate Jewish culture, life-cycle events, and holidays; to study Jewish texts and philosophies; and to encourage one another and practice the principles of Humanistic Judaism together.

What is Humanistic Judaism?

Humanistic Judaism can refer to two different but related phenomena in contemporary Jewish life: the organized movement called the Society for Humanistic Judaism (SHJ) and the more general humanistic approach to Judaism. In either case Humanistic Judaism stresses human responsibility and autonomy, a (generally) naturalistic worldview, and an engagement with and reconstruction of Jewish culture and traditions. The philosophy of Jewish Humanism expands beyond the organized body of the SHJ. Most Reform and Reconstructionist Jews as well as many unaffiliated, secular Jews adhere to a form of Jewish Humanism, even if they do not explicitly identify themselves as Jewish Humanists. The objective of this blog is to discuss the philosophy of Humanistic Judaism and my personal practice of Judaism as a Jewish Humanist. For the sake of clarity and future reference, basic terms and concepts are defined below, and basic presuppositions are stated.

Humanism: a philosophy of life which affirms the ability and responsibility of individuals to lead ethical lives of personal fulfillment that aspire to the greater good of humanity without supernatural intervention. A general outline of Humanism can be found in the Humanist Manifesto III. It is necessary to point out that Humanism is not a synonym for atheism. It is possible to believe in a non-interventionist or non-personal God and be a Humanist (e.g. deists and pantheists).

Humanistic Judaism (Jewish Humanism): a philosophy which underlies a progressive, naturalistic approach to Judaism, Jewish history, and culture. More specifically, a contemporary Jewish denomination. More information about the denomination can be found at shj.org.

Judaism is the Evolving Religious Civilization of the Jewish People: Jews are both an ethnic and a religious group. However, the ethnicity has been primarily defined and shaped by the religion since at least the beginning of the diaspora. While religion is the most important aspect of Judaism historically, it is not the only aspect of Judaism, and secular aspects of Jewish culture should be respected and fostered. History has shown that Judaism, as both a religion and an ethnic group, has adapted to changing situations over the millennia. The modern world is fundamentally different from the pre-modern world, and Judaism must be consciously reconstructed if it is to remain meaningful to non-orthodox Jews.

Jewish Identity: The halakhic determination of Jewish identity states that a person is Jewish if their mother is Jewish or if they convert according to halakhic standards. This definition leads to many problems, particularly in relation to intermarriage, non-orthodox conversions, and “patrilineal” Jews. The position of the Society for Humanistic Judaism radically breaks with traditional, and even the more liberal Reform, standards and declares: “a Jew is a person of Jewish descent or any person who declares himself or herself to be a Jew and who identifies with the history, ethical values, culture, civilization, community, and fate of the Jewish people.” This is the standard of Jewish identity which this blog will operate under, with one caveat: members of “Jewish Christian” groups are not Jews, but rather Christians. I take this position because of the history of antisemitism of the Christian church(es) and the many forced conversions, persecutions, and attempted genocides perpetrated by them against the Jewish people. While I recognize that there are some “Jewish Christians” who were born Jewish and converted to Christianity through these groups, the majority of them are not Jewish in any sense, and should not be treated as such.

Intermarriage: Intermarriage refers to the marriage between a Jewish person and a gentile. Most Jewish denominations see intermarriage as a problem to be solved, however, it is a manufactured problem. The Jewish people will continue if people find Jewish identity or Judaism to be meaningful in their lives. If the children of intermarriage are more likely to identify as non-Jewish, it is because of the exclusionary definition of Jewishness held by these groups. Jewish communities must work to include as many Jews as possible regardless of traditional standards and make Jewish life and community meaningful and worthwhile. Intermarriage is not the problem, but rather apathy and alienation in non-orthodox Jewish communities.

Israel: Israel is the home of the Jewish people and the only majority Jewish country on earth. Its survival as a Jewish country is necessary for the safety of the Jewish people around the globe. Although it is necessary for Israel to be a Jewish nation, minority rights must be respected; the Palestinians of the West Bank must have their freedom from the occupation; and Israel should be a democratic and secular country with religious, political, and civil freedom for all its citizens.